The Human Eye-Common Defects of Vision and Correction

We know that a lens is an optical device that transmits and refracts light. Our eyes too have lenses that enable us to see objects around us. Let us see how the eye is put together and how it works. At the very front of the eye is a transparent structure called the cornea that helps to focus the incoming light. Behind the cornea is the iris. The iris has a circular opening called the pupil. The pupil expands or contracts to depend on the amount of light entering the eye. Behind the pupil is a colorless, transparent crystalline convex lens surrounded by the ciliary muscles. The muscles hold the lens in place and help to change the focal length by adjusting the curvature of the lens. To view a distant object, the muscles relax, the lens becomes thin and its focal length increases. To view a nearby object, the muscles contract, the lens becomes thick and its focal length decreases. This ability to adjust its focal length is called the power of accommodation of the eye. The image formed by the lens is a real inverted image of the object that then strikes the retina. The light-sensitive cells in the retina convert the light into electric signals that are relayed to the brain. The brain converts these electrical signals into the images that we see. The minimum distance at which the eye can see objects clearly is called the near pointer, the least distance of distinct vision. In a normal eye, it is 25cm. The farthest distance up to which the eye can see objects clearly is called the far point of the eye. In a normal eye, it is between25cm and infinity. The eyes can gradually lose their power of accommodation, resulting in blurred vision due to refractive defects. There are four common refractive defects of vision that we shall look at and see how they can be corrected.


Hyper-metopic, also known as far or long-sightedness, in which nearby objects cannot be seen clearly as the image is formed behind the retina. This is due to the increase in the focal length of the lens and a decrease in the length of the eyeball. This defect can be corrected using a convex lens of suitable focal length.


Myopia, or short-sightedness, in which distant objects cannot be seen clearly as the image is formed in front of the retina. This defect may be due to the increase incurvature of the lens or due to the increase in the length of the eyeball. This defect can be corrected using the concave lens of suitable focal length.


Presbyopia, seen in elderly people. Here, nearby objects cannot be seen clearly due to the increase in the distance of the nearest point. This may be due to the weakening of the ciliary muscles or due to the decreased flexibility of the lens. This can be corrected using a convex lens of suitable focal length. At times both nearby and distant objects cannot be seen clearly. This can be corrected using bifocal lenses. The upper part is concave, correcting distant vision and the lower part is convexly correcting near vision.


Astigmatism is another common problem seen when the image may be clearly focused on the retina in the horizontal plane, but not in the vertical plane. This defect maybe, due to an irregular curvature of the cornea or lens. This can be corrected using glasses with a cylindrical lens. Things to remember, The ability of the lens of the eye to see near and distant objects by adjusting its focal length is called the power of accommodation of the eye. In Hyper-metopic, nearby objects cannot be seen clearly. This can be corrected by using a convex lens of suitable focal length. In Myopia, far off objects cannot be seen clearly. This can be corrected by using the concave lens. In Presbyopia, both nearby and distant objects cannot be seen clearly. This can be corrected by using the bifocal lens. The Injury Specialists is registered as a Claims Management Company. with an aim to help people gain compensation for injuries suffered which was not their fault. These injuries can occur due to Road accidents, injuries at work, slip and fall, and medical negligence.

Eight Things You Should Know About Medical Negligence Claim

  Medical negligence means an act of carelessness, not intended to harm.  It refers to a situation where the practitioner unintentionally made a mistake, in good faith to help or take care of the patient. The practitioner has either caused injury or brought on deterioration of the existing condition. Medical negligence claim can be in the form of a misdiagnosis, errors in prescriptions or medications, operational mistakes such as failure to diagnose ectopic pregnancy or damage to the bile duct during gall bladder surgery or failure to advise for associated risks and medical product liability. medical negligence claim

What is a medical negligence claim?

A medical negligence claim happens when a patient holds the practitioner or the organization accountable for his/her loss and takes them into court for monetary compensation. You can claim the compensation for your health or financial losses if you have been through a poor medical treatment. You are advised to claim as soon as possible for the compensation to make sure you or your loved ones receive the best possible results. However, there are a number of things you should know about the medical negligence claim. These include:
  1. Concrete Evidence:

In order to make a successful claim, you need to know how to prove medical negligence. It is important to prove that whatever happened was a mistake and you have suffered as a result of that mistake. The evidence may include photographs, medical records such as x-rays or ultrasounds, witness statements and financial evidence. To make your evidences more clear, you can contact medical professionals who treated you, and ask them to provide anything that is important to your claim. You are needed to keep all the records, all kind of notes, medical prescriptions safe and sound to make your claim successful.
  1. Time Limits:

Usually, you have three years to lodge a medical negligence claim from the date your injury was caused by medical error against the practitioner or organization. In some cases, there are certain exceptions to this rule. These include if the patient is under eighteen years or is unable to make claim due to mental state. You need to be patient in claims. It is not possible to get the compensations within few months. The time of trail generally depends upon how the claimant is responding to the calls.
  1. Find the Right Legal Help:

When faced with such a situation, it is extremely important to get in touch with a medical negligence solicitor. The solicitor you choose must be highly experienced and have all the knowledge about cases they will pursue for you. They will give you correct legal advices, guide you throughout your procedure, keep you informed about all the legal options you have and tell you what damages you are entitled to. A medical negligence solicitor can also help you collect evidence for your claim.
  1. How to Pay For It:

In medical negligence cases, legal aid is provided only in few cases. However, one can fund it by conditional fee agreements that refer to signing for law firms that offer no win no fee agreement. It means that you will not have to pay any fees if your case is not successful because it believes that everyone has a right for legal representations. You can pay for it privately, but it is not common.
  1. Compensation Calculation:

Compensation is generally calculated on the basis of a number of factors. Your medical negligence solicitor will take into account a number of factors to make sure you get the fair compensation. These factors include length of recovery, its impact on daily life, penal damages, loss of finances, loss of benefits and many more.
  1. Medical Witnesses Statements:

Medical witnesses are the expert evidence that will make your claim more strong and successful. Without medical witnesses, you case is more likely to fail. Their professional opinion can help determine whether the act can be deemed as negligence or not. This can serve as the link between damage and negligence and the long-haul effect of the claimant.  
  1. How Much Compensation You’ll Get:

The medical negligence compensation depends upon your individual circumstances. It is calculated on the basis of loss or harm that you have suffered. The degree of negligence does not calculate the compensation. You can receive the compensation for loss of past and future finances, pain and suffering, medical treatment and surgery expenses and cost of care by friends and family.
  1. Medical Negligence Claims Aren’t Always Against NHS Doctors:

A myth about medical negligence claims is that you can only make a claim when shown carelessness by NHS members. However, it is not true. All the health practitioners including dentists, cosmetic surgeons, private as well as public clinics and even the eye doctors can be brought to court. All of them are open to negligence claims if you have evidence about their negligence.      

What is Medical Negligence Claim Process

    Despite what is said about doctors in modern day, we psychologically prepare to put our lives in their hands when we’re within hospital walls. That being said, in emergencies, we can forget that doctors are as human as their patients. And as such, they can make mistakes, some worse than others. Because medical specialists have to fulfill certain standards of care, failing to do so would easily fall under medical negligence.

Medical Negligence Claims

Medical negligence can be in the form of false or wrong diagnoses, poor treatment and surgical practices that go beyond risky events. Anything compromising the care medical centers are meant to provide would be considered as negligence. The realization that medical negligence occurs can cause serious, perhaps health-damaging worry and even lead others to avoid medical support when rightfully needed. This is where the medical negligence claim falls in to place. Medical Negligence

What is a Medical Negligence Claim?

As mentioned, damages can occur by medical institution. A medical negligence claim occurs when the specialist or the medical institution involved is brought to court for failing to provide the proper standard of care. While various conditions apply, they are typically filed soon after the symptoms or issue is noticed.  

Conditions for a Claim

Medical negligence claims usually have to be filed within a three-year timeframe, not ignoring of course, from the time the issue is realized. This case is for most capable and stable adults, but there are cases where exceptions are made for, say, underage victims or handicapped individuals. The one issuing the claim is to prove that the care provided was not up to par such that you would otherwise be healthy or would not have faced such loss or damages. A solicitor will have to confirm if the claim meets the base requirements, for example, if the claim still has time to be filed. The effects of the negligence may not be noticed immediately and instead, seen months later, and for such cases, the lawyer goes through the stringent quality checks and covers all the legal work. In the case of death, where the victim is deceased due to negligence, the claim requirements fall onto the family to fulfill after the cause is discovered. Additionally, if the incident or cause is under the radar of the affected individual/individuals, and they only discover much, much later, the time is still three years from the time of receiving knowledge of the causal factors.   Medical Negligence As far as the time limit is concerned, if it expires, the usual case is that the claim is declined, leaving aside some exceptions. It isn’t just medical specialists and doctors that can be held accountable, but all kinds of individuals who carry out health practices, such as dentists and eye doctors.    

Preparation for Processing the Claims

It is a bit obvious to say that you would need proof to process a medical negligence claim. Without viable evidence, your claim can easily be rejected immediately, which is why it is highly suggested to keep serious track of the records regarding all medical visits. If you need legal help with gathering evidence, a medical lawyer can reach out to the medical institutes or individuals involved to obtain the records needed for processing the claim. While normally being resolved without further issues, medical negligence claims can be taken into trials in the case of conflict. As such, it is appropriate to be prepared in advance, getting legal advice from the appropriate solicitor before any such event happens.   Medical Negligence A medical professional will often be called on as a witness to testify for the claim. This will help confirm the malpractices that allegedly occurred by forming a connection between the malpractice and the damage. clearing any doubts about the incident and further processing the claim.  
In the Midst of the Pandemic
COVID-19 has influenced the process of medical negligence claims drastically. Many professionals are involved in the combat against the pandemic and it puts medical institutes in a tight spot when focusing on other illnesses and conditions. Given time and circumstances, many people might feel underserved by doctors. It should be realized that many major doctors and institutions are involved in combatting the virus, and while any malpractice-related damage should be met with a medical negligence claim, it is appropriate to consider where much of the world’s focus is directed.